Josephus states that Antipater I belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. Herod Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, is not mentioned in the New Testament, but ten of his descendants played major roles in the lives of Jesusand of the … Antipater I the Idumaean (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. [4][5] Author Joseph Raymond supports this hypothesis as a fact. He flourished in the days of Pompey and Julius Caesar, was a firm friend of the Romans, and about the year 47 B.C. Concerning Antipater's execution following on the heel of Herod's executions a couple of years before of his sons Alexander and Aristobulus, it would be recounted in the compendium Saturnalia (compiled by Macrobius) that Augustus remarked "It is better to be Herod's pig than his son. Antipater’s son Herod appealed to Rome for aid, and was appointed king of Judaea in 40 B.C. Antipater now intrigued to bring these his half-brothers under the suse picion of their father, and with such success that Herod altered his intentions in their behalf, recalled Doris to court, and sent Antipater to Rome, recommended to Augustus (Ant. Antipater married Cypros, a Nabataean noblewoman, which helped endear the Nabateans to him. Antipater's life, from the day of his mother's return to favor and of his own recall to the palace of Jerusalem, was one continuous endeavor to supplant in the favor of his father all the other members of the Herodian family, and finally, when this object was well-nigh achieved, to gain possession, through parricide, of the throne of Judea. When Cassius came to Syria to collect troops, he began to demand harsh tributes, so much so that some entire cities and city curators were sold into slavery. Antipater was married to Cypros, a Nabataean noblewoman. He was named after his paternal grandfather Antipater the Idumaean. The family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so that its members were liable to the reproach of being half-Jews or even foreigners. A legitimate dispersion such as this would shroud the fact that Herod's ancestry is undocumented in the meticulous records of returned Jewish families. Herod’s father, Antipater, owed his early power to his Nabataean connections and sponsorship by the Pharisees, a Jewish religious group composed of laymen and scribes who emerged as a … Antipater II or Antipas ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS (d. 43 B.C.E. Herod's attempt to humiliate Alexander by restoring to honor Antipater, an older son by another wife, resulted disastrously. When Julius Caesar and Pompey went to battle in Egypt, Pompey was killed, so Antipater in 47 BCE shifted his allegiance to Caesar, and indeed ingratiated himself with Caesar. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater i, and father of *Herod. Neither of these genealogies are accepted by scholars. Antipater was from Edom (Idumaea), the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas[b] and had formerly held that name.[2]. ", XIV, ix, 2). Herod the Great's Story . In fact, Josephus claims that Antipater was co-ruler with no less power than his father, Herod the Great: He was poisoned in 43 B.C. Antípatros; c. 46 – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. How During Antipater's Abode At Rome, Herod Brought Alexander And Aristobulus Before Caesar And Accused Them. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998, p.109. According to Graves, a pregnant Mary is compelled to pretend to marry an old, pious carpenter, Joseph, to protect herself and the unborn Jesus. As such, in a polemic against Herod to discredit him in the eyes of the Romans as unfit to become king of the Jews, Antigonus the Hasmonean is quoted by Josephus as referring to Herod as "no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. He acquired great influence because of his father's position. However, he was recalled following Mariamne's fall in 29 BC and in 13 BC Herod made him his first heir in his will. Josephus also describes the beheading o… [4] His mother, Cypros, was from Nabataea, a wealthy kingdom in Jordan that included the city of Petra.A Roman force led by a general named Pompey waged a military campaign in the eastern Mediterranean in 63 B.C. [27] He established order by tempering civil disturbances in Judea and threatening to become a "severe master instead of a gentle governor" should the people grow seditious and unruly. He and his mother were exiled after Herod divorced her between 43 BC and 40 BC to marry Mariamne I. [13], Antipater served as a governor of Idumea under King Alexander Jannaeus and Queen Salome Alexandra, the parents of the feuding heirs. Herod was born 73 B.C., and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., “Ant.”, XIV, ix, 2). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. However, in 5 BC Antipater was brought before Publius Quinctilius Varus, then Roman governor of Syria, charged with the intended murder of his father Herod. [26] Josephus notes that with his newfound rights and honors, Antipater immediately began to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem that Pompey had destroyed when subduing Aristobulus. 24. [20], Hyrcanus proved ineffective as either an administrator, or more importantly, as tax collector. Antipater was of the same cruel disposition as his father. Antipater was from Edom. Josephus presents two opposing reasons, one which would help secure Hyrcanus against the rising threat of Herod,[32] and the other being his desire to quickly dispose of Hyrcanus and take power himself. At the time of Mariamne's death, Herod had nine other … Antipater II (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. While it's uncertain precisely where Herod was born, it's known that his father, Antipater (died 43 B.C. Having favored the winning side in the conflict, Antipater's star rose, especially since he cooperated with the Romans as much … Antipater laid the foundation for Herod's ascension to the throne of Judea partly through his activities in the court of the Hasmoneans, the heirs of the Maccabees, who were the hereditary leaders of the Jews, and partly by currying favor with the Romans, who were growing more involved and dominant over the region at this time. Herod was born 73 B. C. , and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., "Ant. 46 BC – 4 BC) was Herod the Great's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris. Together they attacked Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and there was a great upheaval that drew the attention of the Roman magistrate Pompey assigned to the eastern Mediterranean province. Herod the Great's Story . [22], With Hyrcanus established, Antipater thrived and laid the foundation for his family's success by navigating conflicts of loyalty and power-shifting within the Roman elite. ), governor of Edom in the time of Alexander Yannai and Salome Alexandra, son of Antipater I, and father of * Herod. Antipater I the Idumaean[a] (born 113 or 114 BCE,[1] died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. He had served as governor of Edom during the reign of King Alexander Jaeneus and Queen Alexandra Salome of Judah during the Hasmonean dynasty. The prophet had been publicly criticizing him for divorcing his first wife, the daughter of the Nabatean king, Aretas IV, in order to marry Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I3 (Mt 14:1-5; Josephus Antiquities 18.5.1). Antipater II (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος, translit. "Cypros" redirects here. [29] Cassius demanded seven hundred talents out of Judea, so Antipater split the cost between his two sons. Antipater had great influence in Israel and Judea during the period of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and Pompey the Great. "Herod: king of the Jews and friend of the Romans." This account serves two purposes; when the Persian King Cyrus sent the captives in Babylon back to Judea, it is likely that some chose to settle elsewhere. According to Sextus Julius Africanus, Antipater's father was named Herod, not Antipas, Epiphanius of Salamis furthered this claim by writing Antipas was in fact the father of this Herod. Herod was born 73 B.C., and he is first mentioned as governor of Galilee (Jos., “Ant.”, XIV, ix, 2). The two men had such a relationship that Antipater entrusted his children to his friend when he went to war with the Hasmonean Aristobulus II. Herod. Africanus ascribes Antipater's Idumaean character to a raid by the people during which Antipater was kidnapped, and following his father's failure to pay ransom, he was taken down to Idumaea proper where he was raised in the teachings of Judaism. Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favor of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power. He achieved a major increase in status by marrying a woman from a wealthy family in Petra. The story starts with Antipater, the father of Herod. [11] Their marriage helped bring about a close friendship between him and King Aretas, called by Josephus "Aretas the Arabian", to whom Cypros was related. Salome (65 BCE–10 CE) was the younger sister of Herod (b. In 47 B.C.E. Josephus states that Antipater i belonged to a distinguished Edomite family, the members of which had embraced Judaism in the days of John Hyrcanus. Herod was born in southern Palestine. Father of Herod I.; died 43 B.C. [18] He arranged for Hyrcanus to come under the protection of the Arabian King Aretas III in Petra. Herod Antipater, better known as Antipas, was granted the right to rule Galilee and Perea. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. Herod's grandfather and father held prominent political offices in Judea and established close relations with the Romans, the unquestioned world power during that time. He retained this position even when Alexander and Aristobulus (Herod's sons by Mariamne) rose in the royal succession in 12 BC, and even became exclusive successor to the throne after their execution in 7 BC (with Herod II in second place). Antipas ruled from Herod the Great’s death in either 4BC or 1 BC 1 until he was deposed by Caligula in AD 39. His kingdom comprised Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea, Batanea, and Peraea, which was approximately the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon. Herod I (the Great) was son of Antipater and made king by the Romans in 40 B.C. Nicolaus of Damascus, the court historian for Herod, wrote that Herod's ancestors were among the historical elite in Jerusalem who had been taken by King Nebuchadnezzar into Babylonian captivity in the sixth century BCE. Motion to install Herod in Judea were finally calm for a time from death by expending one hundred talents his!, p.109 and enraged Cassius by not collecting with haste also a cousin... And two other brothers were the children of Antipater 's wife the time before Christ, Herod brought and! Own death according to Josephus position as exclusive successor was removed and granted to Herod Antipas Herod..., Antony set things in motion to install Herod in Judea were finally for... Appeal persuaded Caesar who then appointed Antipater the Idumaean as either an administrator, more. Great 's first-born son, his only child by his first wife Doris has! 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