In modern times we have seen an extensive increase in the number of workers' associations, and their general recognition in the juridical codes of single States and on the international level. In those country areas where they are lacking, economic and social progress is either prevented or greatly impeded, with the result that nothing can be done to retard the drift of population away from the land, and it even becomes difficult to make a good appraisal of the numbers involved. Every effort must be made to ensure that the enterprise is indeed a true human community, concerned about the needs, the activities and the standing of each of its members. No age but hears her warning voice, vibrant with heavenly wisdom. They are not supreme values in themselves. First, We must reaffirm most strongly that this Catholic social doctrine is an integral part of the Christian conception of life. (31) Allocutio, 8 Oct. 1956; cf. 25. Pronunciation of mater et magistra with 1 audio pronunciation and more for mater et magistra. They may even go so far as to bring discredit on the Church's teaching, lending substance to the opinion that, in spite of its intrinsic value, it is in fact powerless to direct men's lives. Mater et Magistra. Is this no longer operative today, or has it lost some of its validity in view of the economic conditions We have described above? As Pius XII remarked, "the economic and social function which every man aspires to fulfil, demands that the carrying on of the activity of each one is not completely subjected to the others." It pains Us, therefore, to observe the complete indifference to the true hierarchy of values shown by so many people in the economically developed countries. Nevertheless, in some of these lands the enormous wealth, the unbridled luxury, of the privileged few stands in violent, offensive contrast to the utter poverty of the vast majority. 140. 137. Mother and Teacher of all nationsâsuch is the Catholic Church in the mind of her Founder, Jesus Christ; to hold the world in an embrace of love, that men, in every age, should find in her their own completeness in a higher order of living, and their ultimate salvation. 181. 49. As a world problem, the case is put thus: According to sufficiently reliable statistics the next few decades will see a very great increase in human population, whereas economic development will proceed at a slower rate. Hence, we are told, if nothing is done to check this rise in population, the world will be faced in the not too distant future with an increasing shortage in the necessities of life. Hence there are those who hold the opinion that, in order to prevent a serious crisis from developing, the conception and birth of children should be secretly avoided, or, in any event, curbed in some way. As for the wage system, while rejecting the view that it is unjust of its very nature, he condemned the inhuman and unjust way in which is it so often implemented, and specified the terms and conditions to be observed if justice and equity are not to be violated. (29). 41. It is important also to bear in mind that in agriculture, as in other sectors of production, association is a vital need todayâespecially in the case of family farms. World banking institutes, individual States and private persons are helping to furnish the capital for an ever richer network of economic enterprises in the less wealthy countries. But it must not treat those employees who spend their days in service with the firm as though they were mere cogs in the machinery, denying them any opportunity of expressing their wishes or bringing their experience to bear on the work in hand, and keeping them entirely passive in regard to decisions that regulate their activity. 83. It describes a necessity to work towards authentic community in order to promote human dignity. In helping these nations, therefore, the more advanced communities must recognize and respect this individuality. This has created considerable problems for public authorities, whose duty it is to see that the aims pursued by the leaders of the principal organizationsâespecially those which have an important part to play in the national economyâdo not conflict in any way with the interests of the common good. Consequently, farmers find greater difficulty in obtaining the capital necessary to increase returns. The Church has always emphasized that this obligation of helping those who are in misery and want should be felt most strongly by Catholics, in view of the fact that they are members of the Mystical Body of Christ. It seems to Us opportune to indicate certain directives that can contribute to a solution of this problem: directives which We believe have value whatever may be the historical environment in which one actsâon condition, obviously, that they be applied in the manner and to the degree allowed, suggested, or even demanded by the circumstances. In Our paternal care as universal Pastor of souls, We earnestly beg Our sons, immersed though they be in the business of this world, not to allow their consciences to sleep; not to lose sight of the true hierarchy of values. Mater et Magistra To carry out the mission of Christ in the transformation of the social environment, John XXIII interpreted the signs of the times from the perspective of the Gospel. One’s wages ought to reflect one’s contribution to a company. 87. In business the main operative principle was that of free and unrestricted competition. 229. And in other countries a notable percentage of income is absorbed in building up an ill-conceived national prestige, and vast sums are spent on armaments. Private enterprise too must contribute to an economic and social balance in the different areas of the same political community. 262. It is a magnificent work that they are doing, and We are most happy to take this occasion of giving it the praise that it deserves. (12) In determining wages, therefore, justice demands that account be taken not only of the needs of the individual workers and their families, but also of the financial state of the business concern for which they work and of "the economic welfare of the whole people." Pius XII, however, comes to our rescue with the following directive: "The small and average sized undertakings in agriculture, in the arts and crafts, in commerce and industry, should be safeguarded and fostered. Surely his salvation is near to them that fear him: that glory may dwell in our land. Human Solidarity and Christian Brotherhood. To attempt to undermine this national integrity is clearly immoral. Mindful of Our position as the father of all peoples, We feel constrained to repeat here what We said on another occasion: "We are all equally responsible for the undernourished peoples. © 2020 All Rights Reserved, In Laudato Si, a letter addressed to all the people of the world, Pope Francis presents a clear and compelling case for placing people at, "If we love others with charity, then first of all we are just toward them." Every precaution was to be taken to prevent the civil authority from intervening in any way in economic matters. 88. Concerning the use of material goods, Our Predecessor declared that the right of every man to use these for his own sustenance is prior to every other economic right, even that of private property. 101. El seu títol fa referència al paper de l'Església. This, of course, is not to deny the lawfulness of State and public ownership of productive goods, especially those which "carry with them a power too great to be left to private individuals without injury to the community at large." 128. Genesis relates how God gave two commandments to our first parents: to transmit human lifeâ"Increase and mutliply" (44)âand to bring nature into their serviceâ"Fill the earth, and subdue it." If they cannot do so, or will not do so, then, and only then, does "it fall back on the State to intervene in the division and distribution of work, and this must be according to the form and measure that the common good properly understood demands." (51). They are living in close harmony with Natureâthe majestic temple of Creation. 206. . It is important, too, not to overlook the fact that the economic enterprises of the State and other agencies of public law must be entrusted to men of good reputation who have the necessary experience and ability and a keen sense of responsibility towards their country. 239. It is well-known that in recent years in the larger industrial concerns distinction has been growing between the ownership of productive goods and the responsibility of company managers. A nation should balance economic development with social progress and not sacrifice the welfare of its people for monetary gain. 180. History itself bears this out, for the Church is present everywhere on earth, doing all that she can to embrace all peoples. 78. Her presence brings about the rebirth, the resurrection, of each individual in Christ; and the man who is reborn and rises again in Christ never feels himself constrained from without. They have to wait longer than most people for their returns, and these are exposed to greater hazards. 246. 154. Reading Mater et Magistra, Part III August 30, 2020 David Cruz-Uribe Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Its evil effects on soul and body are undeniable. However, it is no less necessaryâand justice itself demandsâthat the riches produced be distributed fairly among all members of the political community. Consequently, if the whole structure and organization of an economic system is such as to compromise human dignity, to lessen a man's sense of responsibility or rob him of opportunity for exercising personal initiative, then such a system, We maintain, is altogether unjustâno matter how much wealth it produces, or how justly and equitably such wealth is distributed. This attitude is disastrous. The title means "mother and teacher", referring to the role of the church. In performing this task, which is a noble one, they must not only be well qualified in their trade or profession and practice it in accordance with its own proper laws, they must also bring their professional activity into conformity with the Church's social teaching. Any other procedure would be a clear violation of justice, even supposing the contract of work to have been freely entered into by both parties. 90. Given the special nature of agricultural produce, modern economists must devise a suitable means of price protection. Of its very nature the true aim of all social activity should be to help members of the social body, but never to destroy or absorb them." Mater et Magistra (Mother and Teacher) Pope John XXII, 1961. The wealthiest nations of the world should act to help those countries who are less developed and whose people struggle for the life’s basic necessities. 63. But we must realize that they are essentially instrumental in character. And unto his saints: and unto them that are converted to the heart. Leo XIII spoke in a time of social and economic upheaval, of heightening tensions and actual revolt. We consider it Our duty to give further advice on this matter. He makes his own their needs, their sufferings and their joys. 219. But the justification of all government action is the common good. Their rate of pay is quite inadequate to meet the basic needs of life. Furthermore, the progressive perfection of modern methods of thought-diffusionâthe press, cinema, radio, televisionâmakes it possible for everyone to participate in human events the world over. (55). It becomes a means whereby the Christian way of life can leaven this civilization in which we live and workâleaven it with the ferment of the Gospel. Where, on the other hand, the good offices of the State are lacking or deficient, incurable disorder ensues: in particular, the unscrupulous exploitation of the weak by the strong. 84. 236. How can economic development and the supply of food keep pace with the continual rise in population? 208. All of which encourages Us in the hope that individuals and nations will one day learn to unite in a spirit of sincere understanding and profitable cooperation. " No matter how far humanity progresses technologically and economically, it will still seek out the truth of God. 21. Full text: Mater et Magistra (Christianity and Social Progress) by Pope John XXIII, 1961 Education for Justice resources: Reflection: Mater et Magistra (Christianity and Social Progress) 189. Our predecessors have insisted time and again on the social function inherent in the right of private ownership, for it cannot be denied that in the plan of the Creator all of this world's goods are primarily intended for the worthy support of the entire human race. There cannot be peace or justice on earth until all of humanity recognizes the dignity of humans as creations of God. The importance of their work must be gauged not merely by its immediate and obvious results, but also by its effect on the working world as a whole, where it helps to spread sound principles of action and the wholesome influence of the Christian religion . (33) This demand arises from the moral dignity of work. Nevertheless, We believe that very often this movement of population from farming to industry has other causes besides those dependent upon economic expansion. As for the State, its whole raison d'etre is the realization of the common good in the temporal order. 201. (40) [Hence], it is necessary to educate one's conscience to the sense of responsibility which weighs upon each and every one, especially upon those who are more blessed with this world's goods." 46. We might cite as examples such matters as health and education, the choice of a career, and the care and rehabilitation of the physically and mentally handicapped. To ensure this, farmers must be given up-to-date instruction on the latest methods of cultivation, and the assistance of experts must be put at their disposal. When this happens, they should be careful not to lose their respect and esteem for each other. They must gain an experimental knowledge of the subject, and that by their own positive action. We therefore consider it Our duty to reaffirm that the remuneration of work is not something that can be left to the laws of the marketplace; nor should it be a decision left to the will of the more powerful. The status of trade unions varied in different countries. Its definition of the global common good remains influential today. Besides, the resources which God in His goodness and wisdom has implanted in Nature are well-nigh inexhaustible, and He has at the same time given man the intelligence to discover ways and means of exploiting these resources for his own advantage and his own livelihood. You can find Part I here. The solidarity which binds all men together as members of a common family makes it impossible for wealthy nations to look with indifference upon the hunger, misery and poverty of other nations whose citizens are unable to enjoy even elementary human rights. It also guarantees "the conservation and perfection of a social order which makes possible a secure, even if modest, property to all classes of people." They are caused, more often than not, by a deficient economic and social organization, which does not offer living conditions proportionate to the increase in population. But today's experience of so much disillusionment and bloodshed only goes to confirm those words of Scripture: "Unless the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it." The present advance in scientific knowledge and productive technology clearly puts it within the power of the public authority to a much greater degree than ever before to reduce imbalances which may exist between different branches of the economy or between different regions within the same country or even between the different peoples of the world. (43). 226. 194. (10). Furthermore, a strict check should constantly be kept upon their activity, so as to avoid any possibility of the concentration of undue economic power in the hands of a few State officials, to the detriment of the best interests of the community. (42). 240. But today, more than ever, it is essential that this doctrine be known, assimilated, and put into effect in the form and manner that the different situations allow and demand. In His solemn prayer for the Church's unity, Christ Our Lord did not ask His Father to remove His disciples from the world: "I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil." In the work on the farm the human personality finds every incentive for self-expression, self-development and spiritual growth. (64). 209. The only permanent remedy for this is to make use of every possible means of providing these citizens with the scientific, technical and professional training they need, and to put at their disposal the necessary capital for speeding up their economic development with the help of modern methods. Hence a greater technical skill is required of the workers, and more exacting professional qualifications. It is a gross error to suppose that a man cannot perfect himself except by putting aside all temporal activity, on the plea that such activity will inevitably lead him to compromise his personal dignity as a human being and as a Christian. 192. Tragic situations and urgent problems of an intimate and personal nature are continually arising which the State with all its machinery is unable to remedy or assist. On the contrary, it must do all in its power to promote the production of a sufficient supply of material goods, "the use of which is necessary for the practice of virtue." That is what God calls us to by His grace. Mater Et Magistra La Enciclica Mater Et Magistra Contexto Referente a la publicación de la encíclica El 15 de Mayo de 1961, el Papa Juan XXIII dio a conocer su enseñanza social a través de la encíclica Mater Et Magistra, traducida al español como Madre y Maestra. 139. Forty years after the appearance of this magnificent summary of Christian social principles, Our Predecessor, Pius XI, published his own encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno. To turn to the political field, We observe many changes. The Church is by divine right universal. On the contrary, We insist that they must intensify it and increase it continually. 37. On the contrary, we can hope that they will help him to develop and perfect his own personal talents, and lead to that organic reconstruction of society which Our Predecessor Pius XI advocated in his encyclical Quadragesimo Anno as the indispensable prerequisite for the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of social life, (26). If they show themselves alive to the common good and contribute to its realizations, they can legitimately demand that their efforts for the improvement of agricultural conditions be seconded and complemented by public authority. On the subject of work, Pius XII repeated the teaching of the Leonine encyclical, maintaining that a man's work is at once his duty and his right. This demands that the relations between management and employees reflect understanding, appreciation and good will on both sides. The Church aims rather at securing that the institution of private property be such as it should be according to the plan of the divine Wisdom and the dispositions of Nature." They must take account of all those social conditions which favor the full development of human personality. What can be done to persuade agricultural workers that, far from being inferior to other people, they have every opportunity of developing their personality through their work, and can look forward to the future with confidence? Finallyâto take a world viewâone observes a marked disparity in the economic wealth possessed by different countries. Animated, too, by the charity of Christ, he finds it impossible not to love his fellow men. For some considerable time now, Venerable Brethren, Our solicitude for the Universal Church has been directed into the writing of this letter; and We wish to conclude it by voicing the following desires: May man's divine Redeemer "who of God is made unto us wisdom and justice and sanctification and redemption," (65) reign and triumph gloriously throughout all ages, in all and over all. In the large concerns themselves there should be the possibility of moderating the contract of work by one of partnership." Workers should let their actions be guided by moral principles and respect for civil law in accordance with the common good. Just as Jesus’ primary mission was humankind’s eternal salvation, He too fed the hungry and was concerned for worldly needs. They must be educated to it. 36. For this reason, too, investors are more inclined to put their money in industry rather than agriculture. (40) Allocutio, 3 May, 1960; cf. (49) Broadcast message, Christmas Eve, 1953; cf. By no means. For true Christians cannot help feeling obliged to improve their own temporal institutions and environment. 22. 213. To these Our beloved sons in every land who, in promoting genuine progress and civilization, are a living proof of the Church's perennial vitality, We wish to extend Our kind and fatherly word of appreciation and encouragement. They want, that is, to restrain and, if possible, to eliminate the soul's upward surge toward God. 125. 28. A provident God grants sufficient means to the human race to find a dignified solution to the problems attendant upon the transmission of human life. At the same time, however, this assessment of the increased efficiency of social and economic systems in a growing number of communities serves also to bring to light certain glaring discrepancies. Notable quotations from the papal encyclical Mater et Magistra (Mother and Teacher) Pope John XXIII, 1961. Justice is to be observed not only in the distribution of wealth, but also in regard to the conditions in which men are engaged in producing this wealth. It is for individuals, therefore, to regulate their mutual relations where their work is concerned. As we read in St. Augustine: "Lord, you have made us for yourself, and our hearts can find no rest until they rest in you". The world had changed considerably in the previous 30 years both politically and economically. 2. In agriculture the existence of two forms of insurance may be necessary: one concerned with agricultural produce, the other with the farm workers and their families. Moreover, the time has come to promote in agricultural regions the establishment of those industries and services which are concerned with the preservation, processing and transportation of farm products. 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