The wood is moderately susceptible to sap stains and very susceptible to molds. causes significant problems with clones from dry areas that are planted in western Washington. Despite these apparent shortcomings, cottonwoods show some potential as framing materials because their strength properties are comparable to those of currently used softwood species of similar densities. SACHSSE, H. 1975. Hibbs. 1989. Mechanized harvesting is quite suitable for typical plantations on agricultural lands (fiber farms). Aggressive roots can disturb concrete and invade water lines. Terminal buds 17-20 mm long with 6-7 visible scales, lateral buds parallel to twig. In the Northern states – the best time to plant seeds outdoors is from May to June. Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. A leaf rust (Melampsora sp.) Demand for black cottonwood lumber is occasionally good. Place your seeds 1 inch to 1 ½ inches below the soil surface. Successful plantings are established from unrooted cuttings of 1- to 2-year-old-wood that are 12 to 24 in. Physical properties of black cottonwood and balsam poplar. Stand Management Diameter growth of black cottonwood is very responsive to increased growing space. Harvesting of native black cottonwood may often be subject to restrictions for the protection of riparian zones. The Black Cottonwood, also known as the Western Balsam Poplar or California Poplar is one of the tallest and fastest growing hardwood trees in the Western United States. Once your seeds germinate, move each seed into its own container under the growing lights and on the heat mat. Tolerance, Crown Position Black cottonwood is intolerant of shade. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. Fastest growing northwest native large tree. KELLOGG, R.M., and E.P. Forest Science 39:419-431. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16:491-496. Other poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) species may grow in your area and have similar medicinal benefits, so I encourage you to research for proper identification and usage. 1986. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. Cuttings are planted in spring to a depth of 12 to 16 in., with at least one leaf bud aboveground. Typical spacings for pulpwood rotations are 6 X 6 ft to 7 X 10 ft, which accommodate tractors. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Aside from their great girth, stature and beauty, black cottonwoods are generous seeders and sprouters. 1990. Frost cracks are common on larger trees. Average shrinkage from green to ovendry is 3.6 percent radially and 8.6 percent tangentially. Cottonwood trees are male and female, and only the female types form seeds (and cotton). Heartwood MC averages 162 percent, sapwood MC averages 146 percent. CHASTAGNER. Soils Black cottonwood grows best on deep alluvial soils with good aeration and abundant moisture. A member of the birch family, swamp cottonwood is also known as black cottonwood, river cottonwood, downy poplar and swamp poplar. Regeneration from Vegetative Sprouts Black cottonwood sprouts readily from stumps or from buried fragments of branches. This is because cottonwood absorbs the adhesive more readily than other hardwoods. Spermatophyta â Seed plants Division ... Family: Salicaceae â Willow family Genus: Populus L. â cottonwood Species: Populus balsamifera L. â balsam poplar Subspecies: Populus balsamifera L. ssp. In the Pacific Northwest, black cottonwood is most abundant in the Puget Sound basin and in the Columbia and Willamette river basins. The British Columbia Forest Service has identified site-quality classes for natural cottonwood. Logs must be manufactured and delivered very soon after trees are felled. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1863-1869. In much of the Northwest, these conditions are restricted to wet bottomlands. Black cottonwood is normally a dioecious species, with male and female catkins produced on separate trees. Commonly found along rivers and streams. BLANKENHORN. Common Name: COTTONWOOD Habit: Tree.Stem: 40 m; young bark smooth, pale yellow-green to gray; older bark furrowed, brown to gray; twigs with swellings below leaf scars; winter bud generally resinous, scales > 3.Leaf: juvenile, adult, late-season leaves may differ in size, shape, hairiness; generally glabrous; blade 3--11 cm, elliptic to deltate, veins pinnate or +- palmate, tip generally elongate. The bark is gray with tenticels, and leaves are glossy dark green on top and light green on the undersides. Burns and B.H. If you ever go hiking in the Rocky Mountains, take a good look of your surroundings and you will see several black poplars gracing the place. Much of the precipitation may fall as snow. For sawlog or veneer production, moderate crowding is necessary to maintain stem form, reduce branching and forking, and induce self-pruning. Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory. It is limited by high soil acidity, inadequate aeration, and low nutrient supplies. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. Sixty percent of the total volume (456 MMCF) of black cottonwood is found in the Puget Sound subregion. Complete site preparation and continued control of competing vegetation is essential for good performance in plantations. Tool wear and dulling is low because of the wood’s low density. Place your seeds 1 inch to 1 ½ inches below the soil surface. Black cottonwood has been successfully sawn into lumber and peeled for veneer. Heartwood is classed as moderately difficult to penetrate with wood preservatives. The trees are notorious for fluffy strings of seeds that get carried great distances in the breeze. & A. Trees begin to flower after 10 years of growth. 1992. Timber Inventory The largest inventory of black cottonwood is in Washington, where it is third in total volume after red alder and bigleaf maple (Appendix 1, Table 1). Fungal decay is common in wood after weather damage to tops, producing good conditions for cavity-nesting birds. Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Size, Longevity, and Form Mature cottonwoods attain heights of 125 to 150 ft (225 ft maximum) and diameters of 48 to 60 in. Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. In fact, Cisco says the seeds can sprout in â¦ trichocarpa) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. Young trees are susceptible to mortality or damage from early or late frosts. in diameter. Pacific Northwest Bulletin PNW 356. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Moderate crowding produces rapid crown closure (2 to 4 years), which suppresses competing vegetation and eliminates the need for further vegetation management treatments. The female flowers mature into 4-inch long branches of light green capsules that split open in late spring and early summer and fill the air with white cotton-like plumes bearing seeds. USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C. Agriculture Handbook 654. Mechanical Properties Black cottonwood is a weak wood that is rarely used in applications where high strength is required. Open-grown trees develop deep crowns with large branches, often on single, massive stems. Seeds under natural conditions are short-lived, usually for less than a month. Black Cottonwoods make millions of seeds, usually in the last week of May and the seeds are dispersed on the winds- casting themselves as far from the mother tree as possible. Machining Cottonwoods generally machine poorly. To maintain other species with cottonwood, spacing and proportion of the super-dominant cottonwood must be controlled. Brayshaw) By Forest Jay Gauna. Spatial variation in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) foliar nutrient concentrations at seven alluvial sites in coastal British Columbia. Temperatures range from a maximum of 60 to 117°F to a minimum of -53 to 32°F. Best results in planing were obtained with a hook angle of 15°. Cottonwoods have a high tendency to warp during drying because of tension wood and wet pockets. in that time. Although it is tolerant of winter flooding, it requires adequate drainage during the growing season. It is also called Western balsam poplar and California poplar. Germination may occur in 1 week or as long as 3 months (depending on the species). HSIANG, T., and G.A. Average service life of untreated cottonwood posts in ground contact is 4 to 5 years. Indoor Planting: If your seeds require stratification or scarification â do the recommended pretreatment before planting indoors. Appendix 1, Table 3 provides information on clear strength values, as well as comparative values for similar species. Refâ¦ Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. FREE SHIPPING ON ORDERS $60+ TO THE USA & CANADA, Black Cottonwood Tree(Populus trichocarpa). Cottonwood favors moist, well-drained soil along waterways. Associated Vegetation Several species of willow are the major associates of black cottonwood on recent alluvium along most major rivers in the Northwest. Lumber and veneer are often considered to be of relatively low quality and are used primarily for cores in plywood or interior furniture parts. R.M. Populus trichocarpa and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. STRAUSS, and P.R. Protection or prevention of damage may be necessary to avoid severe losses. Advantages of an effective weed control program for Populus hybrids. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. The Black Cottonwood tree is best used as a windbreak. P. 570-576 in Silvics of North America. Stratification Requirement: None required. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. Cruising and Harvesting Diameter at breast height and total height can be used with tables or equations to estimate total tree volumes in cubic feet and sawlog volume. Balsamifera means balsam (aromatic resin)-bearing. Large trees that have toppled into streams provide structure for aquatic habitat. HEILMAN, P.E., and F.G. XIE. According to swamp cottonwood information, these trees are relatively tall, reaching some 100 feet (30 m.) at maturity. About Swamp Cottonwood Trees. Cottonwood’s paintability rating falls in the middle range when compared to other hardwoods. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 15:175-181. Planting Instructions: Fill a container with seed starting mix to about ½ inch from the top. long and 0.4 to 1.2 in. It is generally perpetuated in such environments by recurring floods. Black cottonwood hybrid plantations use cuttings of 1- to 2-year-old wood. Leaves: The leaves of a black cottonwood tree grow alternately in a pale green shade, with a leaf size of 2-2.5 inches in length and width. Gently water your seeds to keep moist, not soaking wet. The average specific gravity is 0.32 (green) or 0.37 (ovendry). BASSMAN, J.H., and J.C. ZWIER. Ahrens, S. Willits, and D.E. Site Preparation and Vegetative Management Newly planted or establishing black cottonwoods are extremely sensitive to vegetative competition, particularly from grasses and herbs. Volume 2, Hardwoods. Leaves of Black Cottonwood. Seed will readily germinate on a variety of favorable sites, particularly where mineral soil has been exposed or â¦ It can grow 125 to 150 feet tall. Place the seed container on a heat mat under growing light(s). Vessels are moderately few to very numerous; pores are numerous, small, and barely visible to the naked eye. Raptors such as osprey frequently nest in cottonwood. long. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. Not ideal for homes. Product Availability Winter, Spring. It is a well-known tree found along rivers and streams throughout the West. Cottonwoods mature as early as 60 years and live at least 200 years. long when mature, and bear seed in capsulate fruits 0.2 to 0.32 in. Keep your heat mat on 24 hours per day. III. For more swamp cottonwood information, read on. The leaf has fine teeth, unlike the other cottonwoods. Regeneration from Seed Black cottonwood generally produces abundant crops of seed every year. Flowering & Fruiting Black cottonwood begins to produce seed at about 10 years of age. Seedbeds must remain moist for up to 1 month for good germination and establishment. HANLEY, and R.W. Gray ex Hook.) Stems and branches may bend or break under heavy snow or ice. Long cuttings of up to 10 ft have been used successfully in some cases; problems with inadequate rooting and poor stem form are common with long cuttings, however. Prefers wet sites over dry sites. Soil Type: Grows best in deep alluvial soils. Fremontâs Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii) How to Use Cottonwood. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. 1992. The wood is subject to fuzzing and scratching when sanded, which contributes to problems in finishing. Wind breakage is also common, and although their root systems are windfirm, erosion of river banks commonly topples trees. It is easy to recognize in the summer when the female cottonwood tree dispenses seeds attached to white fiber type fluffs that resembles cotton. Sun, prefers moist situations, but tolerates poor and dry soils. Structure and pattern of variation in a 3-year field test. Tree Physiology 11:325-339. Uses Cottonwood is used for veneer, pulp, pallets, interior case good parts, boxes, crates, moulding (painted), and studs. Tree Planters Notes 43(3):81-86. Black cottonwood seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment (23). Planting Instructions: Fill a container with seed starting mix to about ½ inch from the top. Herbaceous associates include western swordfern, ladyfern, horsetail, stinging nettle, hedge nettle, false Solomon's-seal, Canada violet buttercup, bittercress, angelica, enchanter’s-nightshade, golden-saxifrage, and bedstraw. HEILMAN. The wood is considered semi-ring to diffuse porous. Flower of Black Cottonwood. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:372-377. 1990. Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Black poplar can be coppiced or pollarded and was therefore a popular source for thatching spars, bean sticks, clothes pegs and woven fruit baskets. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Repeated coppicing is quite successful. This species is the tallest and largest of the three cottonwoods, and can reach up to 150 feet in height. Black Cottonwood is the largest and tallest of the North American poplars. STETTLER. McLENNAN, D.S. During a tree's 125-year lifespan, it may rise to a height of 150' with a diameter ranging from 7' to 8'. The fluffy seeds can travel 20 miles on a breeze, they can be carried on streams and rivers and rest in a vernal pool. Without disturbance, cottonwood is replaced by other species on upland sites. Black Cottonwood can grow up to 45 ft. in the first 7 years and up to 200 ft. tall maximum at mature height. HEILMAN, P.E., R.F. One of the unique aspects of cottonwood trees is the white soft fluff that seems to get everywhere. Black cottonwoods thrive best in moist soils and open areas that allow it to grow rapidly. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Most of the interest in the productivity of managed stands is focused on the intensive cultivation of selected clones or hybrids, in which case productivity is quite dependent on the clone under specific conditions. Populus trichocarpa is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. Elk and deer can devastate plantings with browsing and antler rubbing. Its resistance to cupping and checking associated with outdoor exposure and weathering is very poor. The seed catkins bear nearly spherical capsules, about 4 mm, which split into 3 parts to release silky tufts ("cotton") with attached small seeds (about 2 mm long). Other common associates are red alder, Oregon ash, bigleaf maple, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, western hemlock, Sitka spruce, grand fir, birch, cherry, and hawthorn. Green 4/4 lumber can be dried in 8 to 12 days, and air-dried material can be dried in 4 to 8 days. (108 in. Natural rooting habits are not well known; planted cuttings develop deep, spreading roots. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. In pure stands, dominance is rapidly expressed and inferior trees die out quickly. Influence of soil water on the physiological and morphological components of plant water balance in Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids. The nail-holding strength of the wood is low. Suitability and Productivity of Sites There are no guides for estimating site productivity for black cottonwood in Oregon and Washington. Named after its white, fluffy seeds with cottony hairs, this hardy tree produces sticky, fragrant buds and has a straight growth habit. Heat & humidity is critical for germination. Gently water your seeds to keep moist, not soaking wet. The sapwood is almost white, and merges into the light grey or greyish-brown heartwood, which may contain dark streaks. Voles and mice cause serious losses on grassy or herbaceous sites. The black cottonwood is indigenous to our area and is the fastest growing native tree in North America. western cottonwood, balsam poplar, balsam cottonwood, California poplar, This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. BRAATNE, J.H., T.M. Refer to the publication High yield hybrid poplar plantations in the Pacific Northwest for detailed information on plantation culture. Bending strength is classed as low, while in stiffness and toughness, black cottonwood is rated as intermediate. If your seeds require pretreatment: you should plant your seeds outdoors before the ground freezes in your area (late September to early November). Beaver are often within range, and remove many trees for dams and food. It is normally fairly short-lived, but some trees may live up to 400 years. The high MC, however, does not cause an unnecessarily elongated schedule. Call us at 1 315 4971058. Male and female flowers (catkins) are borne on separate trees beginning in early March (or as late as mid-June in the north). trichocarpa (Torr.& Gray ex Hook.) Likes moist soil and full sun. Each tree contains either female or male catkins. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age 5 because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed (23). Washington State Cooperative Extension; Oregon State University Extension Service; University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System; USDA, [Olympia, Washington]. Longer rotations require thinning to maintain diameter growth. The cottonwood tree is indigenous to North America, where it is commonly seen growing along riverbanks and streams. In its range, annual precipitation can vary from 10 to 120 in., with about one-third falling during the growing season. Outdoor Planting: If your seeds do not require stratification: the best time to plant tree and shrub seeds outdoors is after the last frost in your area (spring). Today, hybrid black poplar timber is used to make artificial limbs, wine cases, pallets, shelving, bowls and toys. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Seed may remain viable for up to 1 year when dried and stored at cold temperatures. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 3050 m and a trunk diameter of over 2 m, which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. But this is a job you donât want to DIY. long; female catkins are 3 to 8 in. After releasing their pollen, male stamens are shed. 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Root systems are windfirm, erosion of river banks black cottonwood seeds topples trees of tension and... Mat under growing light ( s ) growth per year for its first 25 years in., with one-third!
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