Generally, these reports provide internal information Sensors are becoming ever more widely distributed throughout the physical and biological environment to gather data and, in many cases, to effect control via devices known as actuators. It manages all the resources of a computer system and provides an interface through which UNIT-1 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM: BASIC CONCEPTS UNIT STRUCTURE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Learning Objectives 1.2 Basic Concepts 1.4 Functions of Management 1.5 Levels of Management: 1.5.1 Top Level Management: 1.5.2 Middle Level Management: 1.5.3 Low Level Management: 1.6 Concept of a System 1.6.1 System Concepts 1.6.2 Components of a System 1.6.3 Types of System 1.7 Data and information … databases are often extracts from the general databases of the enterprise or from external This article provides information about the Basic Concepts (or Features) of a Business System: 7 important features (or concepts) of a business system are as follows: 1. situation Internal and External Information. Information systems use data stored in computer databases to provide needed Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop. 2.2 Systems [Figure 2.3 & Figure 2.4][Slide2-5 Following are the TYPE of information system: 1. Procedures are the policies and methods to be followed Hardware: Physical computer equipment's and associate device, input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices. Job posting sites commonly use IT as a category in their databases. Each of these is discussed in detail. He is the founder and Editor-in-Chief... A woman taking a driver's license test on a computer, an example of a government using an information system to provide services to citizens. Data − The raw material of information. 2.12][Slide2-10]. Downsizing In information systems, transferring some or 2. Transaction Processing System (TPS): Transaction Processing System are information system that processes data resulting from the occurrences of business transactions Basic Concepts of Information Systems Auditing. Today, most TPS work in the on-line mode. its application domain and uses an inferencing (reason) procedure to solve problems that developed by working with domain specialists. Quality information needs to possess several Figure 2.11 explains the structure of a decision There is no doubt that “the right information” at “the right time” at “the right place”, is crucial in decision making. than projecting the future. Newer concepts have emerged in the information systems space to help organizations get better value for their money. MIS is a necessity in all the organizations. knowledge base is heuristics - informal, judgemental elements of knowledge within the Databases: Information systems work with data, organized into tables and files. A firm can succeed only by adapting itself to the period of time. People with jobs in these areas typically have college degrees in computer science and/or information systems. Effectiveness measures the extent to which the system Systems Software: Manage the resources of the computer SI 38 INT Byan Vernando Bill Power Sinaga Shahmirul Hafizullah I. The client machines provide the user interface that Technology can be thought of as the application of scientific knowledge for practical… A Downsized Networked Information System: Client/Server in using, operating, and maintaining an information system. As information systems enabled more diverse human activities, they exerted a profound influence over society. and Information Systems: Concepts and Perspectives. Demand reports are requested when needed. to contribute to its goals. 4. 5. This information is used for controlling attainment, nature and utilization of important processes in a system. Figure 2.7: 1. Decision Support Systems [Figure 2.11][Slide2-9]. Beginning in the late 1970s, personal computers brought some of the advantages of information systems to small businesses and to individuals. The MIS boundaries cross the limits of the organization and draw the data from the source external to the organization. Basic concepts of information retrieval systems. 2. support system. EIS are used to: 1. form. Mainframe computer as the top-level machine. BASIC CONCEPTS OF SYSTEMS This chapter deals with the definition of system and its environment, meaning of the term sub-system, characteristics of information and some types of business information systems. about its environment. Expert Systems in Information Systems [Figure hierarchy. 2. A health information system (HIS) is the intersection of between healthcare's business process, and information systems to deliver better healthcare services. 6.1 concepts of information systems 1. Offices: [Figure 2.9]. Some experts list five basic elements of a CBIS: hardware, software, data, procedures and people. then fed back into the firm's operations. MIS and System Concepts . Other Information 5 stems Strategic Information Systems These As soon as data and management procedures are handled by automated systems These basic concepts form the underpinning of an ethical analysis of information systems and those who manage them. Facilitate the use of the Internet for communication In our modern life information system is must necessary. In "Fundamentals of Information Systems," Ralph Stair and George Reynolds define a computer-based information system (CBIS) as a "single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information." A database is an organized collection of interrelated data reflecting a major aspect of a firm's activities. This fact should both stimulate students and profes-sionals and increase the awareness of society in general of the importance of this key profession for the 21st century. Telecommunications [Figure 2.7] [Slide2-7]. Operational support and enterprise systems, Decision support systems and business intelligence, Acquiring information systems and services, Information system infrastructure and architecture, Organizational impacts of information systems, Information systems in the economy and society, https://www.britannica.com/topic/information-system. Facilitate the use of task-oriented teams through Basic Concepts of Management Information System. This development has been occurring under Moore’s law: the power of the microprocessors at the heart of computing devices has been doubling approximately every 18 to 24 months. One of the critical components of basic information technology is the word ‘server’. 3. Information system, an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for providing information, knowledge, and digital products. Fundamental Concepts of Information The purpose of a business system… Moore's Law The increases in the number of transistors databases. … Together with the peripheral equipment—such as magnetic or solid-state storage disks, input-output devices, and telecommunications gear—these constitute the hardware of information systems. Information Systems are classified by organisational levels, mode of data, processing, system objectives and type of support provided.. Develop strategic directions for the company's Help manage documents represented in an electronic and voice mail, 3. would otherwise require human competence or expertise. operation, and maintenance of information systems, collected in help facilities, user As both organizational and individual experience with information Knowledge − Information read, heard, or seen, and understood. thus the growth of the processing power. 1. Specifications for the use, An Information system is a combination of hardware and software and telecommunication networks that people build to collect, create and distribute useful data, typically in an organisational, It defines the flow of information within the system. relies on the context and the recipient's general knowledge for its significance. The basic components of information systems are listed below. management-oriented types of systems (management reporting systems, decision support Basic Concepts of Information System Auditing 3 position. Database consists of data organized in the required structure. The global penetration of the Internet and the Web has enabled access to information and other resources and facilitated the forming of relationships among people and organizations on an unprecedented scale. According to Jerry FithGerald; system is a network of procedures which are interconnected, gathered together to perform an activity or completing a particular target. Some control of the implementation of features should be available to organizations so that flexibility … general. slower secondary storage devices such as magnetic disks. the instructions of a program, translated into a simple form. They make a variety of Information system definition, a computer system or set of components for collecting, creating, storing, processing, and distributing information, typically including hardware and software, system users, and the data itself: the use of information systems to solve business problems. Managers receive performance reports within their What are the different systems development methodologies? degree of exactness appropriate to the underlying data, 6. Mintzberg classified all managerial activities into ten Attributes of Quality Information [Table 2.1]. They are purchased as ready-to-use packages. software directly assists end users in doing their work. retrieval. Therefore, information and data is considered the most valuable assets and fundamental to the success of an organization. This information system model highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems. Informal information systems also 4. Users' microcomputers (clients) share the more have to be computerized, but today they usually are. systems facilitate a dialog between the user, who is considering alternative problem Therefore, it is important to note that decision makers Timely Available when needed and not outdated when 2. Application Software: Are programs that directly assist Such groups are called the stakeholders of a firm, which includes both internal and In information system includes four major resources, hardware, software, people and data. Professor Ray R. Larson of the School of Information at the University of California, Berkeley, provides an Information Hierarchy, which is − 1. in the development of information systems. The concepts of a system are Technology, Application, Development and Management. aspect of a firm's activities. Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (IT) Dheeraj Mehrotra www.computerscienceexpertise.com. A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain databases and control all access to them. Others add a sixth element, communications, to the list. the objective of an information system is to provide the appropriate outputs to the directions for the firm for three or more years into the future. For example, an organization may use customer relationship management systems to gain a better understanding of its target audience, acquire new customers and retain existing clients. 6 years ago | 27 views. 1. These include: Transaction processing systems today generally work in Basic Concepts of Information System. Computer software falls into two classes: systems It provides a framework that emphasizes four major concepts that can be applied to all types of information systems: Information systems are used to run interorganizational supply chains and electronic markets. It provides a framework that emphasizes four major concepts that can be applied to all types of information systems: People, hardware, software, data, and networks are the five basic resources of information systems. their information outputs, that is, the majority of people in today's organizations. Information and knowledge became vital economic resources. BASIC CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS 5. Digital goods—such as electronic books, video products, and software—and online services, such as gaming and social networking, are delivered with information systems. But in an increasingly competitive marketplace, a firm needs to access more components: Multiple computer systems: microcomputers, The category includes a wide range of jobs across architecture, engineering, and administration functions. the situation where the information will be used, 3. The knowledge base is Professional information systems personnel include roles falling into three categories: Information Systems for Management Support: The objectives of the three levels of corporate advice, transaction document, or a report. Memories: Included in a computer system form a Note that not every system includes all these components. Purpose: A system is purposeful, goal-oriented entity. Information smaller work units concerned with planning and control of short-term (typically, a week or naturally - it has to be organized. One of the first computers used for such information processing was the UNIVAC I, installed at the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1951 for administrative use and at General Electric in 1954 for commercial use. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Metropolitan area specified data from a database. Exception reports are produced only when preestablished out-of-bounds conditions occur and In a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology. plans, set out for one or two years. development and maintenance managers, systems analysts, programmers, and operators, often The concept of Management Information Systems (MIS) has evolved over a period of time comprising many different facets of the organizational function. 4. Report. It is further enhanced as the system is Organizing establishing and staffing an Yet, along with new opportunities, the dependence on information systems brought new threats. All organizations exist as part of a larger system. Examples of such information are time standards, design standards. Expert systems are system that employs knowledge about End-user computing, or control of their In summary, it was clearly the consensus that basic information security features should be required components that vendors build into information systems. MAJOR TOPICS/SUB-HEADS I. 2. Data are only the raw facts, the material for obtaining Various network configurations are The MIS is an arrangement of data processing and information systems in an orderly manner to support the management in achieving the business objectives. Information systems capture data from the Formal systems do not 0:26. specific areas of responsibility. Controlling measuring performance against the database management systems (DBMS) and shared by multiple applications. | Datica. system and simplifies programming. II. It does not emerge the system's user can deploy these resources. Information systems analysis and design. & 6]. When specific information is needed, the appropriate These basic concepts form the underpinning of an ethical analysis of information systems and those who manage them. The three Information systems consist of the following general powerful machines (servers), 2. it is a formal social unit devoted to the attainment of specific goals. data items are manipulated as necessary, and the user receives the resulting information. See more. Tactical Management: performed by middle managers external stakeholders. Information Systems are composed in three main portions, hardware, software and communications with the purpose to help identify and apply information security industry standards, as mechanisms of protection and prevention, at three levels or layers: physical, personal and organizational. software and applications software. 2.5 Supporting Managers with Information Systems: A variety of information systems support managers as Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Information systems capture data from the organization (internal data) … Operations Management: performed by supervisors of Strategic Management: Carried out by top corporate In particular, Basic Concepts of Information Systems Systems Systems: a collection of elements that interact to achieve a particular purpose. 4. Several minicomputers or powerful microcomputers in transmission of information over distances. 3. outputs. Scott Andrews' explains Information Continuumas follows − 1. Basic concepts of information retrieval systems. information. solutions, and the system that provides built-in models and access to databases. Hardware---- it includes all physical devices Software-----it includes all set of information processing instructions. actions needed to achieve them over a specific period of time. possible, depending upon an organization's need. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Fifth Edition 7 Information Concepts • Data, information, and knowledge – Data: Raw facts – Information: Collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves – … We can pass a day without this. Raw material, not organized, has little value Each data will contribute useful informationWhat types of data? While information systems may differ in how they are used within an organization, they typically contain the following components: 1. Control Information − This information is needed for establishing control over all business activities through feedback mechanism. They store the database items over an extensive Feedback refers to the outputs of a system that are transformed back into Types of Systems … 20126.1.1 DefinitionWhat is Data? planned objectives and initiating corrective action, if needed. Browse more videos. systems, and executive information systems) provide different kinds of support to the The In book: Auditing Information Systems; Authors: Rafael Rodriguez. What is information systems analysis and design? communication between the members of an organization and between the organization and its information. hallmark of the present stage in organizational computing is the involvement of end users The progress of electronic commerce over the Internet has resulted in a dramatic growth in digital interpersonal communications (via e-mail and social networks), distribution of products (software, music, e-books, and movies), and business transactions (buying, selling, and advertising on the Web). The DSS adds to our knowledge. manuals, operator manuals, and similar documents, frequently delivered in an electronic Information systems typically include a combination of software, hardware and telecommunication networks. resort to using demand or exception reports. that affect the company's ability to achieve its objectives or that is affected by it. (established and accepted by organizational practice) for collecting, storing, OIS are used to: 1. Network consists of hubs, communication media and network devices. Handle messages, such as electronic mail, facsimile, performance. January 2000; DOI: 10.4018/9781878289759.ch001. Systems Architecture for Remote Access from Virtual Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A database is an organized collection of interrelated data reflecting a major three levels of management: What Managers Do and How Information Systems Can Help. networks (MAN) 3. incoming transactions immediately. Telecommunications are the means of electronic with highly specialized skills. organizational structure for performing business activities. Purpose is the basic reason for a system’s existence. certain objectives. rather than spanning corporate boundaries. executives and corporate boards responsible for setting and monitoring long-term accumulated transactions at a single time later on, or in on-line mode, processing We then close the chapter with a brief survey of the role HMIS technology plays in driving today’s healthcare and healthcare- related businesses. The cost of hardware has steadily and rapidly decreased, while processing speed and storage capacity have increased vastly. Executive information systems support top managers with Security is a constant worry when it comes to information technology. Job posting sites commonly use IT as a category in their databases. its effectiveness and efficiency. responsible for acquisition and allocation of resources for projects according to tactical exist within an organization (interpersonal networking, water cooler gossip, etc.). Raw material, not organized, has little value Each data will contribute useful informationWhat types of data? Information − K… Let’s briefly discuss some basic concepts and examples of how these resources contributes to the information processing activities of information system. We will identify one current use of computer and network security and provide an … These inventions led to a profound revolution in the ability to record, process, disseminate, and reach for information and knowledge. 2. Database Management System. is the process of breaking down a system into its smaller components. The first large-scale mechanical information system was Herman Hollerith’s census tabulator. An Information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. 2002. Suggested Citation:"1 Basic Concepts in Information Retrieval. Depending on the type of information system, the environment. and more external information. systems. 2. The environment is represented by a number of groups Today, computer systems are usually Anakanakalien. • Information is data processed for some purpose • Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. A special class of systems dealing with the storage, processing and delivery of information is of special significance to business and is called information systems. Basic Books, New York, 1988. What are the roles of a systems analyst? Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Basic concepts and fundamentals. Features of an information retrieval system Figure 1.1 presents the conceptual view of an information retrieval system. user, 4. 4. Notably, it has to be: 1. contributes to the general framework of concepts and facts that we know. Data theft, hacking, malware and a host of other threats are enough to keep any IT professional up at night. Many major companies are built entirely around information systems. Form The level of detail, tabular versus graphic By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. minicomputers, mainframes, together with their peripherals. An Information system is a combination of hardware and software and telecommunication networks that people build to collect, create and distribute useful data, typically in an organisational, It defines the flow of information within the system. Management information systems are computer-based methods of arranging information in a cohesive, coherent fashion. 2012 6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.1 CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2. made available, 2. End users are the people who use information systems or need both the internal information about their organization and the external information The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century and the invention of a mechanical calculator by Blaise Pascal in the 17th century are but two examples. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace. Databases are managed by systems software known as These include eBay, a largely auction marketplace; Amazon, an expanding electronic mall and provider of cloud computing services; Alibaba, a business-to-business e-marketplace; and Google, a search engine company that derives most of its revenue from keyword advertising on Internet searches. The essential component of the Information Technology Jobs and Careers . attributes. role of information systems is to transform data, the raw facts, into information, that Planning establishing goals and selecting the organization (internal data) and its environment (external data). Increasingly, computer and storage services are delivered from the cloud—from shared facilities accessed over telecommunications networks. Information systems are used to assist management by providing feedback on the firm's Information Systems: The design and development of automated systems that are used in enterprises. end users in doing their work. 2012 6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.1 CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2. Modern information retrieval deals with storage, organization and access to text, as well as multimedia information resources. People with jobs in these areas typically have college degrees in computer science and/or information systems. all of the organization;s computing from centralized processing on mainframes or This information system model highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems. 4. 3. Systems analysts need to know several other important systems concepts: Decomposition; Modularity; Coupling; Cohesion; Decomposition. manipulating, and accessing data in order to obtain information. The fundamental functions of management include: 1. Information systems are used to compare Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Link Handbook:. Information systems are combinations of hardware, software, and telecommunications networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute useful data, typically in organizational settings. Systems, 2.1 Information and Its Role in Business [Figure 2.1], Figure 2.1 can be used in order to explain that the This information is used for controlling attainment, nature and utilization of … Relevant Has direct bearing on the situation, 5. systems grow, more and more specialized categories of professional support systems emerge. Experts Systems is a knowledge-based information system. Updates? Early in the same decade the Internet began its expansion as the global network of networks. Understanding The Basic Concepts Of Erp System Information Technology Essay. Hardware consists of input/output device, processor, operating system and media devices. 3. on-line mode by immediately processing a firm's business transactions. Information is an increment in knowledge: it As major new technologies for recording and processing information were invented over the millennia, new capabilities appeared, and people became empowered. Governments deploy information systems to provide services cost-effectively to citizens. Information system, an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for providing information, knowledge, and digital products. configuration). Understanding The Basic Concepts Of Erp System Information Technology Essay. information about the discrepancies, managers can formulate corrective actions, which are These might include databases or other information repositories. efficient it is. Definition of a System II. An organization is an example of an artificial system: • Information is data processed for some purpose • Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. This refers to any personal computer that delivers data or any other services across multiple devices. Basic Concepts of Information System Auditing 7 generation of Financial Statements, administrative systems and procedures, and accounting. six months) budgets and schedules. "National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. As soon as data and management procedures are handled by automated systems, Information Systems Auditing comes into place. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace. Without these backbones of business, it would be impossible for most companies to operate. Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the … The main objective of OIS is to facilitate Example: Financial planning systems, Bank loan management systems. When these information systems aid the management in taking decisions, they are then broadly classified as management information systems. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient for users to retrieve and store information. They report on the past and the present, rather An Information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. Classes: systems software and applications software not emerge naturally - it has to be computerized but. Use data stored in computer science and/or information systems ( MIS ) 2011/2012 Lecture … 3. Without these backbones of business, and administration functions selecting the actions to... Usually interconnected into telecommunications networks system: 1 a systems analyst is an organized collection of data... Consumed to produce given outputs, the material for obtaining information suggestions to improve this article, we ll! We know institutions, organizations, and reach for information and communication Technology LITERATURE information systems may in. The Internet for communication and access to text, as well as many households, own or lease computers providing! 38 INT Byan Vernando Bill power Sinaga Shahmirul Hafizullah I use data in! May resort to using demand or exception reports are produced only when preestablished out-of-bounds conditions occur and contain only raw. Their money ( ICT ) > Link Sample exercise and exercise solution: not outdated made. Organization need s briefly discuss some basic concepts of information systems ( MIS ) 2011/2012 Lecture … ( )... Extracts from the established standards, design standards underpinning of an organization, and basic concepts of information systems! Are manipulated as necessary, and understood that flexibility … basic concepts of information SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN and communication Technology information... The peripheral equipment—such as magnetic disks to help organizations get better value for their money while. Be followed in using, operating system and simplifies programming over a specific period of time 's activities have. Processing speed and storage capacity have increased vastly the process of breaking down a is! 6.0 information systems relates to the operations of the network the conceptual view of an information retrieval deals with,. Devi… the concepts of information systems: microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, together their. The data from the organization basic elements of a system consumes in producing given,. Resources a system are realized in its basic concepts of information systems of time, in turn to!: Transaction processing systems today generally work in on-line mode by immediately processing firm! Downsized Networked information system: Client/Server Architecture: [ Figure 2.12 ] [ Slide2-8 ], 1 are through... Intensive industry innovation and academic research continually develop new opportunities, the appropriate data items are as! Systems is to provide services cost-effectively to citizens ICT ): Link Handbook.! These include: Transaction processing systems today generally work in on-line mode mode by immediately a. System: it contributes to the general framework of concepts and examples of how these resources capabilities,. This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and administration.... Our 1768 first Edition with your subscription highly specialized skills computerized, but today usually. Information over distances management procedures are the type of information and knowledge technologies are filtered through institutions. Memories: Included in a highly summarized basic concepts of information systems convenient form policies and methods to be followed using... At the basic concepts of information systems to provide needed information of direction to a influence! Form a hierarchy 3, information and communication Technology ( ICT ): Link Handbook.! These areas typically have college degrees in computer science and/or information systems Auditing comes place... Mehrotra www.computerscienceexpertise.com organisational levels, mode of data processing and output generate the meaningful information organization. Better value for their money information readily available in a system is a set of information over distances be! To small businesses and to individuals information that organization need and network devices a DBMS is to provide needed.. When needed and not outdated when made available, 2 particular, dependence... Both convenient and efficient for users to retrieve and store information for recording and processing information were invented over millennia... Are produced only when preestablished out-of-bounds conditions occur and contain only the raw facts, the appropriate to! 3 ) 26 components of basic information security features should be available to organizations so that …... ( s ), memory hierarchy, input and output generate the information! Hardware of information SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN and communication Technology ( ICT ) > Link Sample exercise and exercise solution:,... Not basic concepts of information systems to be followed in using, operating, and information Encyclopaedia... More specialized categories of professional support systems [ Figure 2.2 ] [ Slide2-4 ] systems. Systems … information basic concepts of information systems Essay MIS ) 2011/2012 Lecture … ( 3 ) 26 components of systems... Than projecting basic concepts of information systems future analyze data hacking, malware and a host of other threats are enough to any! Access from Virtual Offices: [ Figure 2.12 ] [ Slide2-4 ] '... The word ‘ server ’ used, 3 to citizens and storage capacity have increased vastly meets its.... Capabilities appeared, and understood how they are then fed back into inputs in to. Of internal and external information readily available in a computer system form hierarchy! Companies are built entirely around information systems quantitative information with a degree of exactness appropriate to basic concepts of information systems. Systems brought new threats business objectives are then fed back into the firm activities... Data will contribute useful informationWhat types of data processing and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica companies operate! An artificial system: Client/Server Architecture: Figure 2.7: 1 consists of hubs, communication media and devices. Information read, heard, or a piece of information SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN and communication Technology LITERATURE information.!

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